Featured Articles in Sep 2017

Surgical Human Resources According to Types of Health Care Facility: An Assessment in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

 

Author list: Shirwa Sheik Ali, Zahra Jaffry, Meena N. Cherian, Teena Kunjumen, Annette M. Nkwowane, Andrew J. M. Leather, Hernan Montenegro Von Muhlenbrock, Edward Kelley, James Campbell

 

Abstract:

Background

A robust health care system providing safe surgical care to a population can only be achieved in conjunction with access to competent surgical personnel. It has been reported that 5 billion people do not have access to safe, affordable surgical and anaesthesia care when needed. This study aims to fill the existing gap in evidence by quantifying shortfalls in trained personnel delivering safe surgical and anaesthetic care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) according to the type of health care facility.

 

Methods

We conducted secondary analysis of 1323 health facilities, in 35 low- and middle-income countries using facility-based cross-sectional data from the World Health Organization Situational Analysis Tool to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care.

 

Results

The majority of surgical and anaesthetic care in LMICs was provided by general doctors (range 13.8–41.1%; mean 27.1%). Non-physicians made up a significant proportion of the surgical workforce in LMICs. 26.76% of the surgical and anaesthetic workforce was provided by clinical medical officers and nurses. Private/NGO/mission hospitals, large, well-resourced institutions had the highest proportion of surgeons compared to any other type of health care facility at 27.92%. This compares to figures of 18.2 and 19.96% of surgeons at health centres and subdistrict/community hospitals, respectively, representing the lowest level of health facility.

 

Conclusion

We highlight the significant proportion of non-physicians delivering surgical and anaesthetic care in LMICs and illustrate wide variations according to the type of health care facility.

 

URL: http://rdcu.be/uJvC


Antibiotics May be Safely Discontinued Within One Week of Percutaneous Cholecystostomy

 

Author list: Tyler J. Loftus, Scott C. Brackenridge, Camille G. Dessaigne, George A. Sarosi Jr., William J. Zingarelli, Frederick A. Moore, Janeen R. Jordan, Chasen A. Croft, R. Stephen Smith, Phillip A. Efron, Alicia M. Mohr

 

Abstract:

Background

For patients with acute cholecystitis managed with percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC), the optimal duration of post-procedural antibiotic therapy is unknown. Our objective was to compare short versus long courses of antibiotics with the hypothesis that patients with persistent signs of systemic inflammation 72 h following PC would receive prolonged antibiotic therapy and that antibiotic duration would not affect outcomes.

 

Methods

We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of 81 patients who underwent PC for acute cholecystitis at two hospitals during a 41-month period ending November 2014. Patients who received short (≤7 day) courses of post-procedural antibiotics were compared to patients who received long (>7 day) courses. Treatment response to PC was evaluated by systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria. Logistic and linear regressions were used to evaluate associations between antibiotic duration and outcomes.

 

Results

Patients who received short (n = 30) and long courses (n = 51) of antibiotics had similar age, comorbidities, severity of cholecystitis, pre-procedural vital signs, treatment response, and culture results. There were no differences in recurrent cholecystitis (13 vs. 12%), requirement for open/converted to open cholecystectomy (23 vs. 22%), or 1-year mortality (20 vs. 18%). On logistic and linear regressions, antibiotic duration as a continuous variable was not predictive of any salient outcomes.

 

Conclusion

Patients who received short and long courses of post-PC antibiotics had similar baseline characteristics and outcomes. Antibiotic duration did not predict recurrent cholecystitis, interval open cholecystectomy, or mortality. These findings suggest that antibiotics may be safely discontinued within one week of uncomplicated PC.

 

URL: http://rdcu.be/uJvI


Uncomplicated Acute Diverticulitis: Identifying Risk Factors for Severe Outcomes

 

Author list: Rebekah Jaung, Malsha Kularatna, Jason P. Robertson, Ryash Vather, David Rowbotham, Andrew D. MacCormick, Ian P. Bissett

 

Abstract:

Background

The management of uncomplicated (Modified Hinchey Classification Ia) acute diverticulitis (AD) has become increasingly conservative, with a focus on symptomatic relief and supportive management. Clear criteria for patient selection are required to implement this safely. This retrospective study aimed to identify risk factors for severe clinical course in patients with uncomplicated AD.

 

Methods

Patients admitted to General Surgery at two New Zealand tertiary centres over a period of 18 months were included. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out in order to identify factors associated with a more severe clinical course. This was defined by three endpoints: need for procedural intervention, admission >7 days and 30-day readmission; these were analysed separately and as a combined outcome.

 

Results

Uncomplicated AD was identified in 319 patients. Fifteen patients (5%) required procedural intervention; this was associated with SIRS (OR 3.92). Twenty-two (6.9%) patients were admitted for >7 days; this was associated with patient-reported pain score >8/10 (OR 5.67). Thirty-one patients (9.8%) required readmission within 30 days; this was associated with pain score >8/10 (OR 6.08) and first episode of AD (OR 2.47). Overall, 49 patients had a severe clinical course, and associated factors were regular steroid/immunomodulator use (OR 4.34), pain score >8/10 (OR 5.9) and higher temperature (OR 1.51) and CRP ≥200 (OR 4.1).

 

Conclusion

SIRS, high pain score and CRP, first episode and regular steroid/immunomodulator use were identified as predictors of worse outcome in uncomplicated AD. These findings have the potential to inform prospective treatment decisions in this patient group.

 

URL: http://rdcu.be/uJvL


The Effectiveness of Prophylactic Modified Neck Dissection for Reducing the Development of Lymph Node Recurrence of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

 

Author list: Yasuhiro Ito, Akira Miyauchi, Takumi Kudo, Minoru Kihara, Mitsuhiro Fukushima, Akihiro Miya

 

Abstract:

Background

The most frequent recurrence site of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the cervical lymph nodes. The introduction of an electric linear probe for use with ultrasonography in 1996 improved preoperative lateral neck evaluations. Before 2006, however, our hospital routinely performed prophylactic modified neck dissection (p-MND) for N0 or N1a PTCs >1 cm to prevent node recurrence. In 2006, we changed our policy and the indications for p-MND to PTCs >3 cm and/or with significant extrathyroid extension. Here, we retrospectively compared lymph node recurrence-free survival between PTCs with/without p-MND.

 

Methods

We examined the cases of N0 or N1 and M0 PTC patients who underwent initial surgery in 1992–2012. To compare lymph node recurrence-free survival between patients who did/did not undergo p-MND, we divided these patients into three groups (excluding those whose surgery was in 2006): the 2045 patients whose surgery was performed in 1992–1996 (Group 1), the 2989 with surgery between 1997 (post-introduction of ultrasound electric linear probes) and 2005 (Group 2), and the 5332 operated on in 2007–2012 (Group 3).

 

Results

The p-MND performance rate of Group 3 (9%) was much lower than that of Group 1 (80%), but the lymph node recurrence-free survival of the former was significantly better, probably due to differences in clinical features and neck evaluations by ultrasound between the two groups. Our analysis of the patients aged <75 years with 1.1–4-cm PTCs in Groups 2 and 3 showed that p-MND did not improve lymph node recurrence-free survival. p-MND did significantly improve lymph node recurrence-free survival for the extrathyroid extension-positive 3.1–4-cm PTCs, but not for the other subsets.

 

Conclusions

Abolishing routine p-MND for PTCs in 2006 did not decrease lymph node recurrence-free survival, probably due to improved ultrasound preoperative neck evaluations and clinical feature changes. Selective p-MND for high-risk cases improved lymph node recurrence-free survival.

 

URL: http://rdcu.be/uJvW


Laparoscopic Versus Open Resection for Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs): A Size–Location-Matched Case–Control Study

 

Author list: Jun-Lin Chi, Mao Xu, Ming-Ran Zhang, Yuan Li, Zong-Guang Zhou

 

Abstract:

Background

Laparoscopic resection for gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) is technically feasible, but the long-term effect remains uncertain. This study aims to compare the long-term oncologic outcomes of laparoscopic versus open resection of GISTs by larger cases based on tumor size–location-matched study.

 

Methods

Between 2006 and 2015, 63 consecutive patients with a primary gastric GIST undergoing laparoscopic resection were enrolled in and matched (1:1) to patients undergoing open resection by tumor size and location. Clinical and pathologic parameters and surgical outcomes associated with each surgical type were collected and compared.

 

 

Results

The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, return of bowel function and oral intake, nasogastric tube retention time and postoperative stay were all shorter/faster in laparoscopic group than those in open group (P < 0.001). Postoperative complications were comparable except for the higher incidence of abdominal/incision pain in open group (9.52 vs 27%, P = 0.01). There was no statistical difference in recurrence rate (9.52 vs 15.87%, P = 0.29) and long-term recurrence-free survival between the two groups (P = 0.39).

 

Conclusions

The long-term oncologic outcome of laparoscopic resection of primary gastric GISTs is comparable to that of open procedure, but laparoscopic procedure has the advantage of minimal invasion and is superior in postoperative recovery.

 

URL: http://rdcu.be/uJwz


Transanal Endoscopic Operation Versus Conventional Transanal Excision for Rectal Tumors: Case-Matched Study with Propensity Score Matching

 

Author list: Jeeonghee Han, Gyoung Tae Noh, Chinock Cheong, Min Soo Cho, Hyuk Hur, Byung Soh Min, Kang Young Lee, Nam Kyu Kim

 

Abstract:

Background

Although transanal endoscopic surgery is practiced worldwide, there is no consensus on comparative outcomes between transanal endoscopic operation (TEO) and transanal excision (TAE). In this study, we reviewed our experiences with these techniques and compared patients who underwent TEO and TAE using propensity score matching (PSM).

 

Methods

A total of 207 patients underwent local rectal tumor excision between January 2008 and November 2015. To overcome selection bias, we used PSM to achieve a one-to-one TEO: TAE ratio. We included baseline characteristics, age, sex, surgeon, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, tumor location (clockwise direction), involved circumference quadrants, tumor size, and pathology.

 

Results

After PSM, 72 patients were included in each group. The tumor distance from the anal verge was higher in the TEO group (8.0 [5–10] vs. TAE: 4.0 [3–5], p < 0.001). Complication rates did not differ between the groups (TEO: 8.3% vs. TAE: 11.1%, p = 0.39). TEO was associated with a shorter hospital stay (3.01 vs. 4.68 days, p = 0.001), higher negative margin rate (95.8 vs. 86.1%, p = 0.039), and non-fragmented specimen rate vs. TAE (98.6 vs. 90.3%, p = 0.029).

 

Conclusions

TEO was more beneficial for patients with higher rectal tumors. Regardless of tumor location, involved circumference quadrants, and tumor size, TEO may more effectively achieve negative resection margins and non-fragmented specimens. Consequently, although local excision method according to tumor distance may be important, TEO will become the standard for rectal tumors.

 

URL: http://rdcu.be/uJwC


Radiologically Determined Sarcopenia Predicts Morbidity and Mortality Following Abdominal Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

 

Author list: Keaton Jones, Alex Gordon-Weeks, Claire Coleman, Michael Silva

 

Abstract:

Background

Individualised risk prediction is crucial if targeted pre-operative risk reduction strategies are to be deployed effectively. Radiologically determined sarcopenia has been shown to predict outcomes across a range of intra-abdominal pathologies. Access to pre-operative cross-sectional imaging has resulted in a number of studies investigating the predictive value of radiologically assessed sarcopenia over recent years. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine whether radiologically determined sarcopenia predicts post-operative morbidity and mortality following abdominal surgery.

 

Methods

CENTRAL, EMBASE and MEDLINE databases were searched using terms to capture the concept of radiologically assessed sarcopenia used to predict post-operative complications in abdominal surgery. Outcomes included 30 day post-operative morbidity and mortality, 1-, 3- and 5-year overall and disease-free survival and length of stay. Data were extracted and meta-analysed using either random or fixed effects model (Revman® 5.3).

 

Results

A total of 24 studies involving 5267 patients were included in the review. The presence of sarcopenia was associated with a significant increase in major post-operative complications (RR 1.61 95% CI 1.24–4.15 p = <0.00001) and 30-day mortality (RR 2.06 95% CI 1.02–4.17 p = 0.04). In addition, sarcopenia predicted 1-, 3- and 5-year survival (RR 1.61 95% CI 1.36–1.91 p = <0.0001, RR 1.45 95% CI 1.33–1.58 p = <0.0001, RR 1.25 95% CI 1.11–1.42 p = 0.0003, respectively) and 1- and 3-year disease-free survival (RR 1.30 95% CI 1.12–1.52 p = 0.0008).

 

Conclusions

Peri-operative cross-sectional imaging may be utilised in order to predict those at risk of complications following abdominal surgery. These findings should be interpreted in the context of retrospectively collected data and no universal sarcopenic threshold. Targeted prehabilitation strategies aiming to reverse sarcopenia may benefit patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

 

URL: http://rdcu.be/uJwP


 

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