Featured Articles in Oct 2017

Development of a Unifying Target and Consensus Indicators for Global Surgical Systems Strengthening: Proposed by the Global Alliance for Surgery, Obstetric, Trauma, and Anaesthesia Care (The G4 Alliance)

 

Author list: Adil Haider, John W. Scott, Colin D. Gause, Mira Mehes, Grace Hsiung, Albulena Prelvukaj, Dana Yanocha, Lauren M. Baumann, Faheem Ahmed, Na’eem Ahmed, Sara Anderson, Herve Angate, Lisa Arfaa, Horacio Asbun, Tigitsu Ashengo

 

Abstract: 

After decades on the margins of primary health care, surgical and anaesthesia care is gaining increasing priority within the global development arena. The 2015 publications of the Disease Control Priorities third edition on Essential Surgery and the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery created a compelling evidenced-based argument for the fundamental role of surgery and anaesthesia within cost-effective health systems strengthening global strategy. The launch of the Global Alliance for Surgical, Obstetric, Trauma, and Anaesthesia Care in 2015 has further coordinated efforts to build priority for surgical care and anaesthesia. These combined efforts culminated in the approval of a World Health Assembly resolution recognizing the role of surgical care and anaesthesia as part of universal health coverage. Momentum gained from these milestones highlights the need to identify consensus goals, targets and indicators to guide policy implementation and track progress at the national level. Through an open consultative process that incorporated input from stakeholders from around the globe, a global target calling for safe surgical and anaesthesia care for 80% of the world by 2030 was proposed. In order to achieve this target, we also propose 15 consensus indicators that build on existing surgical systems metrics and expand the ability to prioritize surgical systems strengthening around the world.

 

URL: http://rdcu.be/wC3R


Contemporary Approaches to Perioperative IV Fluid Therapy

 

Author list: Paul S. Myles, Sam Andrews, Jonathan Nicholson, Dileep N. Lobo, Monty Mythen

 

Abstract: 

Background

Intravenous fluid therapy is required for most surgical patients, but inappropriate regimens are commonly prescribed. The aim of this narrative review was to provide evidence-based guidance on appropriate perioperative fluid management.

 

Methods

We did a systematic literature search of the literature to identify relevant studies and meta-analyses to develop recommendations.

 

Results

Of 275 retrieved articles, we identified 25 articles to inform this review. “Normal” saline (0.9% sodium chloride) is not physiological and can result in sodium overload and hyperchloremic acidosis. Starch colloid solutions are not recommended in surgical patients at-risk of sepsis or renal failure. Most surgical patients can have clear fluids and/or administration of carbohydrate-rich drinks up to 2 h before surgery. An intraoperative goal-directed fluid strategy may reduce postoperative complications and reduce hospital length of stay. Regular postoperative assessment of the patient’s fluid status and requirements should include looking for physical signs of dehydration or hypovolemia, or fluid overload. Both hypovolemia and salt and water overload lead to adverse events, complications and prolonged hospital stay. Urine output can be an unreliable indicator of hydration status in the postoperative surgical patient. Excess fluid administration has been linked to acute kidney injury, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and cardiac and pulmonary complications.

Conclusion

There is good evidence supporting the avoidance of unnecessary fasting and the value of an individualized perioperative IV fluid regimen, with transition to oral fluids as soon as possible, to help patients recover from major surgery.

 

URL: http://rdcu.be/wC4r


Management of Enterocutaneous Fistula: Outcomes in 276 Patients

 

Author list: Martha Quinn, Stuart Falconer, Ruth F. McKee

 

Abstract: 

Background

Intestinal failure secondary to enterocutaneous fistula (ECF) requires multidisciplinary management at significant cost. Mortality and morbidity are high.

 

Methods

Patients were identified from a prospectively collected database of patients requiring inpatient parenteral nutrition (1998–2013). Data collected included: demographics, mode of admission, pathological grouping and outcome.

 

Results

A total of 286 ECF were identified in 278 patients, mean age 64 years (20–96 years) with an equal gender distribution. In total, 112 fistulas developed following an emergency admission, 89 fistulas following an elective admission, and the remainder 85 were transferred from outlying district hospitals. In total, 246 ECF were as a result of previous surgery, 11 occurred following endoscopic procedures, with the remainder occurring spontaneously. All patients received parenteral nutrition (PN). Forty-seven patients overall died from sepsis/multiorgan failure. A total of 154 ECF resolved with aggressive non-operative management and 46 died prior to resolution of their fistula or surgery. 74.8% of patients with ECF proximal to the duodenal-jejunal flexure closed without surgery compared to 35.4% with disease distal to the flexure (p = 0.001). Nineteen early operations were performed, with 51 patients undergoing definitive surgery. In-hospital mortality was 19.1% (53/278), with 30-day post-operative mortality from definitive surgery being 9.8% (5/51).

 

Conclusion

Mortality remains high and is associated with sepsis. Fistulas proximal to the duodeno-jejunal flexure are more likely to close spontaneously. If the fistula fails to close spontaneously care is often prolonged and complex, requiring a dedicated nutrition team. In this series, spontaneous closure was more common in upper GI fistulas. Patients who are not able to be discharged in the interval between fistula formation and definitive surgery have a higher mortality risk.

 

URL: http://rdcu.be/wC4I


Early Timing of Thyroidectomy for Hyperthyroidism in Graves’ Disease Improves Biochemical Recovery

 

Author list: Domenic Vital, Gregoire B. Morand, Christian Meerwein, Roman D. Laske, Hans C. Steinert, Christoph Schmid, Michelle L. Brown, Gerhard F. Huber

 

Abstract: 

Background

The role of thyroidectomy as an early treatment for hyperthyroidism has been poorly investigated. Our aim was to examine its success rates, particularly focusing on thyroidectomy as an early treatment.

Methods

Patients with thyroidectomy for hyperthyroidism between February 2008 and October 2014 were included. They were divided into two groups (early and delayed thyroidectomy), and patient characteristics, treatment indications, complications and time to biochemical recovery were analyzed.

 

Results

Ninety-nine patients met the inclusion criteria, of whom 65 (66%) suffered from Graves’ disease, 25 (25%) from toxic goiters and 9 (9%) from amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism. Structural abnormalities of the thyroid (39 patients, 39%) represented the most frequent indications for thyroidectomy. Forty-six patients (46%) underwent an early and 53 (54%) a delayed surgical approach. Patients with Graves’ disease undergoing early thyroidectomy did not suffer more often from complications but had a significantly faster biochemical recovery after surgery than those with a delayed thyroidectomy, as judged by a shorter time to reach TSH (121 ± 24 vs. 240 ± 31 days, p = 0.007) and fT4 (91 ± 29 vs. 183 ± 31 days p = 0.015) levels in the normal range. As expected, there were no recurrences of hyperthyroidism.

 

Conclusions

Early thyroidectomy was neither associated with permanent complications nor thyroid storm, but with a significantly improved biochemical recovery and therefore has to be recommended early in patients with Graves’ disease.

 

URL: http://rdcu.be/wC5f


Surgical Treatment of Extraesophageal Manifestations of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

 

Author list: Feroze Sidwa, Alessandra L. Moore, Elaine Alligood, P. Marco Fisichella

 

Abstract: 

Background

The extraesophageal manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) include chronic cough, laryngopharyngeal reflux, and asthma. They are responsible for significant morbidity in affected patients and a high economic burden on healthcare resources. We recently published a larger review on the symptoms, diagnosis, medical, and surgical treatment of the extraesophageal manifestations of GERD. Through our investigation, we found that the role of ARS for respiratory symptoms was unclear. Hence, we resorted through the data of our previous meta-analysis to compile a comprehensive and focused review on the role of ARS for respiratory symptoms.

 

Methods

Using the archive of our previous meta-analysis, we selected studies extracted from the MEDLINE, Cochran, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Embase databases pertaining to the surgical treatment of extraesophageal manifestations of reflux (cough laryngopharyngeal reflux, and asthma). We applied a similar reporting methodology as was used in our previous manuscript and then hand searched the bibliographies of included studies yielding a total of 27 articles for review. We graded the level of evidence and classified recommendations by size of treatment effect per the American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines.

 

Results

Observational data indicated that syndromes of chronic cough, laryngopharyngeal reflux and asthma might improve after antireflux surgery only in highly selected patients—likely those with non-acid reflux—while those patients with objective markers of asthma severity do not. Because of the varied methods of diagnosis and surgical technique, non-comparative observational data may be unreliable. Additionally, our search found no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing antireflux surgery to medical therapy in the treatment of cough or laryngopharyngeal reflux. One RCT compared medical treatment to antireflux surgery in patients with asthma, but medical treatment included high-dose H2 blockers instead of PPIs.

 

 

Conclusions

Extraesophageal manifestations of GERD are common, costly, and difficult to treat. ARS might be effective in highly selected patients, especially in those whose extraesophageal manifestations are caused by non-acid reflux. The available data to date are generally of poor quality or outdated. Well-designed randomized controlled trials or large-scale observational cohort studies are urgently needed.

 

URL: http://rdcu.be/wC5s


Safety of Anticoagulation Interruption in Patients Undergoing Surgery or Invasive Procedures: A Systematic Review and Meta-analyses of Randomized Controlled Trials and Non-randomized Studies

 

Author list: Frederique Hovaguimian, Sabrina Koppel, Donat R. Spahn

 

Abstract: 

Background

The safety of anticoagulation interruption in patients requiring surgical or invasive procedures remains unclear. We thus performed a systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized studies (NRS).

 

Methods

MEDLINE, Embase and Central databases were searched to March 2017 without date or language restrictions. We considered RCTs and NRS comparing anticoagulation interruption with any anticoagulation (continuation or heparin bridging) in adult surgical patients taking oral anticoagulation. Data were independently extracted. The quality of the evidence was assessed following recommendations from the Cochrane collaboration (GRADE approach). Risk ratios were calculated for 30-day events: thromboembolic (TE) events, major bleeding and mortality. Additional analyses explored the effects of different anticoagulation strategies.

 

Results

Twelve reports were included: 4 RCTs (2190 participants) and 8 NRS (18993 participants). Trials included mostly participants with atrial fibrillation. Interrupting anticoagulation did not seem to increase TE events (RR 0.65, 95% CI [0.33, 1.30]—4 studies, 2190 participants) and resulted in less bleeding (RR 0.41, 95% CI [0.22, 0.78]—3 studies, 2126 participants) compared to anticoagulation continuation or heparin bridging. The GRADE assessment was moderate. Similar results were found in non-randomized studies, but the quality of the evidence was low. Possible strategy-specific effects were identified: forgoing heparin bridging seemed beneficial, but these effects were less clear with other strategies.

 

Conclusions

Interrupting anticoagulation in patients requiring invasive procedures did not seem to result in harm and protected against major bleeding. Uncertainty remains regarding the safety of this strategy in indications other than atrial fibrillation and in moderate- to high-risk surgery.

 

URL: http://rdcu.be/wC5S


Clinicopathological Significance and Prognosis of Medullary Thyroid Microcarcinoma: A Meta-analysis

 

Author list: Jin Hwa Kim, Jung Soo Pyo, Won Jin Cho

 

Abstract: 

Background

The objective of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the clinicopathological significance and prognosis of micro-MTC compared to macro-MTC.

 

Methods

Relevant articles were obtained by searching the PubMed and MEDLINE databases. A meta-analysis was performed using 15 eligible studies. In addition, subgroup analysis based on heredity was performed in patients diagnosed with micro-MTC.

 

Results

The rate of extrathyroidal extension of micro-MTC [0.118 (95% CI 0.073–0.185)] was significantly lower than that of macro-MTC [0.303 (95% CI 0.224–0.395)]. Micro-MTC [0.229 (95% CI 0.161–0.314)] had a significantly lower rate of cervical lymph node (LN) metastasis compared to macro-MTC [0.595 (95% CI 0.486–0.694)]. The rate of multifocality was not significantly different between micro-MTC and macro-MTC [0.394 (95% CI 0.244–0.566) vs. 0.320 (95% CI 0.234–0.421), respectively]. The rate of distant metastasis did not differ significantly between micro-MTC [0.082 (95% CI 0.017–0.314)] and macro-MTC [0.068 (95% CI 0.009–0.376)]. Patients with micro-MTC showed significantly higher disease-free survival rates [hazard ratio [HR] 0.406 (95% CI 0.288–0.575), I2 = 40.563%] compared to patients with macro-MTC.

 

Conclusions

Micro-MTC has aggressive features, such as multifocality and distant metastasis, similar to macro-MTC and a non-negligible rate of extrathyroidal extension and cervical LN metastasis. We suggest that treatment of micro-MTC should be approached with a similar focus as that of macro-MTC. Considering that less extrathyroidal extension and cervical LN metastasis occur in patients with micro-MTC compared to macro-MTC, we propose that treatment of micro-MTC, which has a relatively low disease burden status, should be viewed as an opportunity for improving prognosis.

 

URL: http://rdcu.be/wC59


 

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