Featured Articles in Oct 2020

COVID


ERAS: The Post COVID-19 Surgical Backlog: Now is the Time to Implement Enhanced Recovery After Surgery

 

 

Author list –

Ljungqvist, O., Nelson, G. & Demartines, N.

 

Abstract: no abstract

URL: https://rdcu.be/b6wr9

 


What is the Preferred Screening Tool for COVID-19 in Asymptomatic Patients Undergoing a Surgical or Diagnostic Procedure?

 

 

Author list – 

Huybens, E.M., Bus, M.P.A., Massaad, R.A. et al.

Abstract:

Introduction

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, measures were taken to protect healthcare staff from infection, to prevent infection of patients admitted to the hospital and to distribute PPE according to need. To assure the proper protection without overuse of limited supply of these equipments, screening of patients before surgical or diagnostic procedure was implemented. This study evaluates the results of this screening.

Method

All patients screened for COVID-19 before procedure warranting either general, locoregional anaesthesia or sedation were included. Screening included a symptom questionnaire by phone, PCR and HRCT chest testing. Surgical or procedural details were registered together with actions taken based on screening results.

Results

Three hundred ninety-eight screenings were performed on 386 patients. The symptom questionnaire was completed in 72% of screenings. In 371 screenings, PCR testing was performed and negative. HRCT chest found 18 cases where COVID-19 could not be excluded, with negative PCR testing. Three patients had their surgery postponed due to inconclusive screening, and additional measures were taken in three other patients. There were incidental findings in 14% of HRCT chest scans.

Discussion

Pre-operative screening will differentiate if PPE is needed for procedures and which patients can safely have elective surgery during this COVID-19 pandemic and in the times to come. HRCT chest has no additional value in the pre-operative screening of asymptomatic patients. Screening can be performed with a symptom questionnaire, and additional screening with PCR testing in high-risk patient groups should be considered.

URL: https://rdcu.be/b6wsi


Is Elective Cancer Surgery Safe During the COVID-19 Pandemic?

 

 

Author list – 

Ji, C., Singh, K., Luther, A.Z. et al.

Abstract:

Background

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a significant decrease in the number of elective cancer operations performed. Cancer patients are felt to be a high-risk group for COVID-19, and therefore, concerns have been raised regarding the safety of operating during this time; however, the potential risk of cancer progression if untreated must also be considered. The aim of this study was therefore to identify the incidence of COVID-19 post-operatively in patients undergoing elective cancer surgery of all types.

 

Methods

Data were collected on all patients who had an elective therapeutic cancer operation in a single large district general hospital, where standard COVID-19 precautions were in place, between 01/02/2020 and 27/4/2020, Follow-up was for a minimum of 2 weeks post-discharge. The primary outcome was the incidence of COVID-19 during the follow-up period.

 

Results

A total of 621 elective cancer surgeries, from a range of specialities, were performed during the study period, with 55% (n = 341) being done as day cases. None of the patients were positive for COVID-19 post-operatively using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction testing.

Conclusions

The risk of COVID-19 following elective cancer surgery in this group of high-risk patients appears to be minimal in this study. With further precautions being introduced to reduce the risk of transmission of COVID-19, an increase in the rate of elective cancer surgery should be a current priority for all hospitals where possible.

URL: https://rdcu.be/b6wsr


Original manuscripts


How Can We Predict the Recovery from Pitch Lowering After Thyroidectomy?

 

 

Author list – 

Kim, S., Park, J., Bae, J. et al.

Abstract:

Background

Some of patients are suffered from pitch lowering of voice after thyroidectomy. We sought to identify factors predictive of a recovery from lowered pitch voice after thyroid surgery.

 

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed the records of 133 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy to treat papillary carcinoma between January 2012 and February 2013. Of these, we enrolled 78 who exhibited a lower-pitched voice (SFF fall > 12 Hz) at 2 weeks post-operatively than pre-operatively and investigated pitch recovery after 3 months. We subclassified patients into recovery and non-recovery groups and compared videostroboscopic findings, acoustic voice data, and thyroidectomy-related voice questionnaire scores pre-operatively and 2, 8, and 12 weeks post-operatively.

 

Results

Vocal cord asymmetry on videostroboscopic examination at 2 weeks post-operatively (odds ratio 19.056, p = 0.001*) was more frequent in the non-recovery group. In acoustic analysis, mean pre-operative SFF was higher in the non-recovery group than the recovery group (190.9 ±  27.5 and 180.9 ±  24.6 Hz, respectively; p = 0.030*). Also, a reduction in the SFF of > 19.6 Hz, at 2 weeks post-operatively versus pre-operatively, predicted non-recovery of pitch-lowering in patients with reduced SFF within post-operative 3 months, with 72.0% sensitivity and 71.2% specificity. After 6 months of follow-up, no patient who exhibited an SFF fall > 19.6 Hz recovered to within 10 Hz of the pre-operative value.

Conclusion

A reduction in the speaking fundamental frequency (SFF) > 19.6 Hz at 2 weeks post-operatively predicted persisting lowering of voice pitch after thyroidectomy among those with lower-pitched voices after surgery. Pre-operative high SFF and post-operative stroboscopic findings including vocal cord asymmetry at 2 weeks post-operatively also predicted persisting lowering of voice pitch for 3 months.

URL: https://rdcu.be/b6wsA


Provider–patient Language Discordance and Cancer Operations: Outcomes from a Single Center Linked to a State Vital Statistics Registry.

 

 

Author list – 

Feeney, T., Park, C., Godley, F. et al.

Abstract:


Introduction

Patterns of worldwide immigration have resulted in high rates of discordance between medical providers and the patients they treat. For example, in the USA, 25 million individuals in the USA self-identified that they speak English less than “very well.” Previous studies have generated mixed results regarding differences in postoperative outcomes between English proficient (EP) and limited English proficient (LEP) patients. Our objective was to determine whether a difference in outcomes exists for non-English-speaking patients compared to English-speaking patients after operations commonly performed to treat cancer.

 

Study design

A retrospective cohort study was performed in an urban, safety net and tertiary referral medical center over a five-year period. Adult patients undergoing cancer operations were stratified as EP and LEP. We evaluated 30-day revisit to the ED, length of stay (LOS), long-term all-cause mortality, and any major complication on index admission. Regression was used to adjust for baseline comorbidities, case risk, and socioeconomic factors.

 

Results

A total of 2467 patients were included. There was no difference in case risk between language groups, but EP had a larger proportion of high comorbidity scores. Patients in the non-English group were more likely to be uninsured/self-pay and live in neighborhoods with lower median income. After adjustment, we found no difference in long-term mortality [hazard ratio: 0.87 (95% CI 0.52–1.45)]. LEP patients had the same LOS compared to primary EP patients with an IRR of 0.99 (95% CI 0.88–1.10). There was no difference in the odds of revisit to hospital for LEP versus EP, with an OR of 1.08, 95% CI [0.75–1.53] and no difference in major complication (OR 0.76 (95% CI 0.39–1.45).

Conclusions

We found no association between language and outcomes after cancer operations. This lack of difference may reflect local efficacy at treating non-English-speaking patients, and health systems with fewer services for LEP patients might show different results.

URL:  currently not available


We Asked the Experts: Providing the Road Map to Uncovering the Pathophysiology of Young-Onset Cancer to Guide Treatment and Preventive Strategies

 

Author list – 

Barreto, S.G.

Abstract: no abstract


URL: currently not available

 


Community- and Hospital-Acquired Infections in Surgical patients at a Tertiary Referral Hospital in Rwanda

 

Author list – 

Muvunyi, V., Mpirimbanyi, C., Katabogama, J.B. et al.

Abstract:


Background

Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) are increasing in globally. The aim of this study was to compare community-acquired infections (CAIs) and hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) and determine the rate of third-generation cephalosporin resistance and ESBL-PE at a tertiary referral hospital in Rwanda.

Methods

This was a cross-sectional study of Rwandan acute care surgery patients with infection. Samples were processed for culture and susceptibility patterns using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Third-generation cephalosporin resistance and ESBL-PE were compared in patients with CAI versus HAI.

 

Results

Over 14 months, 220 samples were collected from 191 patients: 116 (62%) patients had CAI, 59 (32%) had HAI, and 12 (6%) had both CAI and HAI. Most (n = 178, 94%) patients were started on antibiotics with third-generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone n = 109, 57%; cefotaxime n = 52, 27%) and metronidazole (n = 155, 81%) commonly given. Commonly isolated organisms included Escherichia coli (n = 62, 42%), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 27, 18%), and Klebsiella spp. (n = 22, 15%). Overall, 67 of 113 isolates tested had resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, with higher resistance seen in HAI compared with CAI (74% vs 46%, p value = 0.002). Overall, 47 of 89 (53%) isolates were ESBL-PE with higher rates in HAI compared with CAI (73% vs 38%, p value = 0.001).

 

Conclusions

There is broad and prolonged use of third-generation cephalosporins despite high resistance rates. ESBL-PE are high in Rwandan surgical patients with higher rates in HAI compared with CAIs. Infection prevention practices and antibiotic stewardship are critical to reduce infection rates with resistant organisms in a low-resource setting.

URL: currently not available


Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses


What to Propose After Failed Adjustable Gastric Banding: One- or Two-step Procedure?

 

 

Author list – 

Marion, Y., Eid, Y., Menahem, B. et al.

Abstract:


Background

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG) can be proposed in case of failed laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB). The main question is whether the revisional procedure is carried out in one or two stages.

Objective

Postoperative outcomes between the one-step approach and the two-step approach of conversion of failed LAGB to RYGB or SG were, respectively, compared.

Methods

A systematic review of the literature published until June 2019 was conducted. All studies comparing one-step and two-step approaches after failed LAGB were included. Primary outcomes include both mortality and morbidity at 30 days postoperatively according to Dindo–Clavien classification. Among the studies included, a random effect model was used with Review Manager 5.3 (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK).

Results

A total of 3895 patients had conversion of failed LAGB to RYGB (n = 3214) or SG (n = 681), respectively. The conversion was carried out in one-step (n = 2767) or two-step (n = 1128) approaches. Meta-analysis did not show statistical difference for overall morbidity rate (OR = 1.01, 95%CI = 0.78–1.30, p = 0.96) whether it is for SG (OR = 1.25, 95%CI = 0.73–2.14, p = 0.42) or RYGB (OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.71–1.26, p = 0.69) and for major postoperative morbidity (OR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.59–1.56, p = 0.87) whether it is for SG (OR = 0.66, 95%CI = 0.22–1.97, p = 0.46) or RYGB (OR = 1.05, 95%CI = 0.61–1.81, p = 0.86). Moreover, there was no statistical difference for specific morbidity rate including reoperation, leak, abscess, postoperative bleeding, and late postoperative complications.

Limitations

Given the retrospective nature of the studies, these results should be interpreted with caution.

Conclusion

This updated meta-analysis suggests that conversion of failed LAGB to RYGB or SG can be safely performed in one-step or two-step approaches.

URL: https://rdcu.be/b6ws9


Haemostatic Efficacy of Topical Agents During Liver Resection : A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomised Trials

Author list:
Wells, C.I., Ratnayake, C.B.B., Mentor, K. et al.

Abstract:
Background

Hepatic resection carries a high risk of parenchymal bleeding both intra- and post-operatively. Topical haemostatic agents are frequently used to control bleeding during hepatectomy, with multiple products currently available. However, it remains unknown which of these is most effective for achieving haemostasis and improving peri-operative outcomes.

Methods

A systematic review and random-effects Bayesian network meta-analysis of randomised trials investigating topical haemostatic agents in hepatic resection was performed. Interventions were analysed by grouping into similar products; fibrin patch, fibrin glue, collagen products, and control. Primary outcomes were the rate of haemostasis at 4 and 10 min.

Results

Twenty randomized controlled trials were included in the network meta-analysis, including a total of 3267 patients and 7 different interventions. Fibrin glue and fibrin patch were the most effective interventions for achieving haemostasis at both 4 and 10 min. There were no significant differences between haemostatic agents with respect to blood loss, transfusion requirements, bile leak, post-operative complications, reoperation, or mortality.

Conclusions

Amongst the haemostatic agents currently available, fibrin patch and fibrin glue are the most effective methods for reducing time to haemostasis during liver resection, but have no effect on other peri-operative outcomes. Topical haemostatic agents should not be used routinely, but may be a useful adjunct to achieve haemostasis when needed.

URL: https://rdcu.be/b6wtc


The Current Evidence for Defining and Assessing Effectiveness of Surgical Educators

Author list:
Dickinson, K.J., Bass, B.L. & Pei, K.Y.

Abstract:
Background

Surgical educator effectiveness is valued but lacks an operational definition. Clearly defining attributes consistent with effective surgical educators allows for the development of professional activities directed to nurture these qualities. Our aim was to identify the literature defining qualities of an effective surgical educator, and tools to measure effectiveness.

Methods

We searched PubMed, Medline, Scopus and Academic Search Complete for English language articles from 1 July 2009–1 July 2019. Two reviewers screened all abstracts for relevance and read full text of selected articles to identify included studies. Inclusion criteria were description/definition of an effective surgical educator or description of assessment/measurement of effectiveness in surgical educators. Data extracted included: study design, participants, definition/description of qualities of an effective surgical educator, qualitative or quantitative methods to assess surgical educators.

Results

Initial search identified 8086 articles. Of these, 2357 articles were excluded as duplicates and 5729 abstracts screened with 5638 excluded due to irrelevance. Full text review was performed for 91 articles to assess eligibility, 23 met inclusion criteria. The majority (74%) did not clearly define an effective surgical educator. Themes from six studies that determined important qualities include: communication, leadership skills, professionalism, respect, positive learning climate, and brief-intraoperative teaching-debrief model. One validated assessment tool was identified.

Conclusions

There is little published work defining or assessing effective surgical educators. Establishment of a positive learning climate and excellent communication skills continue to be important qualities that define surgical educator effectiveness.

URL: https://rdcu.be/b6wth


 

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