Featured Articles in May 2019

18F-Fluorocholine PET/CT and Parathyroid 4D CT for Primary Hyperparathyroidism: The Challenge of Reoperative Patients

 

Author list  

Coralie Amadou, Géraldine Bera, Malek Ezziane, Linda Chami, Thierry Delbot, Agnès Rouxel, Monique Leban, Genevieve Herve, Fabrice Menegaux, Laurence Leenhardt, Aurélie Kas, Christophe Trésallet, Cécile Ghander, Charlotte Lussey-Lepoutre

 

Abstract

 

Background

To evaluate FCH-PET/CT and parathyroid 4D-CT so as to guide surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) and prior neck surgery.

 

Methods

Medical records of all patients referred for a FCH-PET/CT in our institution were systematically reviewed. Only patients with pHPT, a history of neck surgery (for pHPT or another reason) and an indication of reoperation were included. All patients had parathyroid ultrasound (US) and Tc-99m-sestaMIBI scintigraphy, and furthermore, some patients had 4D-CT. Gold standard was defined by pathological findings and/or US-guided fine-needle aspiration with PTH level measurement in the washing liquid.

 

Results

Twenty-nine patients were included in this retrospective study. FCH-PET/CT identified 34 abnormal foci including 19 ectopic localizations. 4D-CT, performed in 20 patients, detected 11 abnormal glands at first reading and 6 more under FCH-PET/CT guidance. US and Tc-99m-sestaMIBI found concordant foci in 8/29 patients. Gold standard was obtained for 32 abnormal FCH-PET/CT foci in 27 patients. On a per-lesion analysis, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were, respectively, 96%, 13%, 77% and 50% for FCH-PET/CT, 75%, 40%, 80% and 33% for 4D-CT. On a per-patient analysis, sensitivity was 85% for FCH-PET/CT and 63% for 4D-CT. FCH-PET/CT results made it possible to successfully remove an abnormal gland in 21 patients, including 12 with a negative or discordant US/Tc-99m-sestaMIBI scintigraphy result, with a global cure rate of 73%.

 

Conclusions

FCH-PET/CT is a promising tool in the challenging population of reoperative patients with pHPT. Parathyroid 4D-CT appears as a confirmatory imaging modality.

 

URL https://rdcu.be/buI8t

 

 


Global Disparities in Breast Cancer Genetics Testing, Counselling and Management

 

Author list

C. H. Yip, D. G. Evans,G. Agarwal, I. Buccimazza, A. Kwong, R. Morant, I. Prakash, C. Y. Song, N. A. Taib, C. Tausch, O. Ung, S. Meterissian

 

Abstract

Hereditary breast cancers, mainly due to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, account for only 5–10% of this disease. The threshold for genetic testing is a 10% likelihood of detecting a mutation, as determined by validated models such as BOADICEA and Manchester Scoring System. A 90–95% reduction in breast cancer risk can be achieved with bilateral risk-reducing mastectomy in unaffected BRCA mutation carriers. In patients with BRCA-associated breast cancer, there is a 40% risk of contralateral breast cancer and hence risk-reducing contralateral mastectomy is recommended, which can be performed simultaneously with surgery for unilateral breast cancer. Other options for risk management include surveillance by mammogram and breast magnetic resonance imaging, and chemoprevention with hormonal agents. With the advent of next-generation sequencing and development of multigene panel testing, the cost and time taken for genetic testing have reduced, making it possible for treatment-focused genetic testing. There are also drugs such as the PARP inhibitors that specifically target the BRCA mutation. Risk management multidisciplinary clinics are designed to quantify risk, and offer advice on preventative strategies. However, such services are only possible in high-income settings. In low-resource settings, the prohibitive cost of testing and the lack of genetic counsellors are major barriers to setting up a breast cancer genetics service. Family history is often not well documented because of the stigma associated with cancer. Breast cancer genetics services remain an unmet need in low- and middle-income countries, where the priority is to optimise access to quality treatment.

 

URL https://rdcu.be/buJbJ


Fast-Track Pancreaticoduodenectomy: Factors Associated with Early Discharge

 

Author list

David A. Mahvi, Linda M. Pak, Sourav K. Bose, Richard D. Urman, Jason S. Gold, Edward E. Whang

 

Abstract

 

Introduction

Pancreaticoduodenectomy is a complex surgery frequently associated with prolonged hospitalizations. However, there are a subset of patients discharged within 5 days from surgery; the preoperative and intraoperative characteristics of this subset are unknown.

 

Methods

The NSQIP Targeted Pancreatectomy Dataset was used from 2014 to 2016. Patients who died within 30 days were excluded. A total of 10,741 patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy were identified. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed for preoperative and intraoperative ACS-NSQIP variables to identify predictors of early discharge. Early discharge was defined as discharge 3–5 days after surgery.

 

Results

A total of 1105 patients (10.3%) were discharged within 5 days following pancreaticoduodenectomy. On multivariable analysis, preoperative factors associated with early discharge included younger age (OR 0.988, p < 0.001), non-obesity (OR 0.737, p = 0.001), those receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (OR 1.424, p < 0.001), and lack of COPD (OR 0.489, p = 0.005) or hypertension (OR 0.805, p = 0.007). Intraoperative factors associated with early discharge on multivariable analysis were shorter operation duration (OR 0.999, p = 0.002), minimally invasive surgery (OR 3.537, p < 0.001), and hard pancreatic texture (OR 1.480, p < 0.001). Intraoperative factors associated with non-early discharge were epidural placement (OR 0.485, p < 0.001), drain placement (OR 0.308, p < 0.001), and jejunostomy tube placement (OR 0.278, p < 0.001). Patients discharged within 5 days had a 14.7% readmission rate compared to 17.0% for later discharges (p = 0.047).

 

Conclusion

Multiple preoperative and intraoperative factors, including some that are potentially modifiable, were significantly associated with early discharge after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Patients with these characteristics may benefit from enhanced recovery after surgery programs and expedited disposition planning postoperatively.

 

URL https://rdcu.be/buJdU


Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities in the Surgical Management and Outcomes of Patients with Colorectal Carcinoma

 

Author list

Ashley L. Cairns, Francisco Schlottmann, Paula D. Strassle, Marco Di Corpo, Marco G. Patti

 

Abstract

 

Introduction

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in the USA. We aimed to determine racial and socioeconomic disparities in the surgical management and outcomes of patients with CRC in a contemporary, national cohort.

 

Methods

We performed a retrospective analysis of the National Inpatient Sample for the period 2009–2015. Adult patients diagnosed with CRC and who underwent colorectal resection were included. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions were used to assess the effect of race, insurance type, and household income on patient outcomes.

 

Results

A total of 100,515 patients were included: 72,552 (72%) had elective admissions and 27,963 (28%) underwent laparoscopic surgery. Patients with private insurance and higher household income were consistently more likely to have laparoscopic procedures, compared to other insurance types and income levels, p < 0.0001. Black patients, compared to white patients, were more likely to have postoperative complications (OR 1.23, 95% CI, 1.17, 1.29). Patients with Medicare and Medicaid, compared to private insurance, were also more likely to have postoperative complications (OR 1.30, 95% CI, 1.24, 1.37 and OR 1.40, 95% CI, 1.31, 1.50). Patients in low-household-income areas had higher rates of any complication (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06, 1.16).

 

Conclusion

The use of laparoscopic surgery in patients with CRC is strongly influenced by insurance type and household income, with Medicare, Medicaid and low-income patients being less likely to undergo laparoscopic surgery. In addition, black patients, patients with public insurance, and patients with low household income have significant worse surgical outcomes.

 

URL https://rdcu.be/buJfZ


Surgical Procedures Performed by Emergency Medical Teams in Sudden-Onset Disasters: A Systematic Review

 

Author list

Charles A. Coventry, Ashish I. Vaska Andrew J. A. Holland David J. Read, Rebecca Q. Ivers

 

Abstract

 

Introduction

Emergency medical teams (EMTs) frequently provide surgical care after sudden-onset disasters (SODs) in low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of this review is to describe the types of surgical procedures performed by EMTs with general surgical capability in order to aid the recruitment and training of surgeons for these teams.

 

Methods

A search of electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE) was carried out to identify articles published between 1990 and 2018 that describe the type of surgical procedures performed by EMTs in the impact and post-impact phases of a SOD. Further relevant articles were obtained by hand searching reference lists.

 

Results

A total of 16 articles met the inclusion criteria. Articles reporting on EMTs from a number of different countries and responding to a variety of SODs were included. There was a high prevalence of procedures for extremity soft tissue injuries (46.8%) and fractures (28.3%), although a number of abdominal and genitourinary/obstetric procedures were also reported.

 

Conclusion

Based upon this review, deployment of surgeons or teams with experience in the management of soft tissue wounds, orthopaedic trauma, abdominal surgery, and obstetrics is recommended.

 

URL https://rdcu.be/buJg4


Definitive Chemoradiotherapy Versus Trimodal Therapy for Resectable Oesophageal Carcinoma: Meta-analyses and Systematic Review of Literature

 

Author list

Daan M. Voeten, Chantal M. den Bakker, David J. Heineman, Johannes C. F. Ket, Freek Daams, Donald L. van der Peet

 

Abstract

 

Introduction

Standard therapy for loco-regionally advanced, resectable oesophageal carcinoma is trimodality therapy (TMT) consisting of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and oesophagectomy. Evidence of survival advantage of TMT over organ-preserving definitive chemoradiotherapy (dCRT) is inconclusive. The aim of this study is to compare survival between TMT and dCRT.

 

Methods

A systematic review and meta-analyses were conducted. Randomised controlled trials and observational studies on resectable, curatively treated, oesophageal carcinoma patients above 18 years were included. Three online databases were searched for studies comparing TMT with dCRT. Primary outcomes were 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rates. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tools for RCTs and cohort studies. Quality of evidence was evaluated according to Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation.

 

Results

Thirty-two studies described in 35 articles were included in this systematic review, and 33 were included in the meta-analyses. Two-, three- and five-year overall survival was significantly lower in dCRT compared to TMT, with relative risks (RRs) of 0.69 (95% CI 0.57–0.83), 0.76 (95% CI 0.63–0.92) and 0.57 (95% CI 0.47–0.71), respectively. When only analysing studies with equal patient groups at baseline, no significant differences for 2-, 3- and 5-year overall survival were found with RRs of 0.83 (95% CI 0.62–1.10), 0.81 (95% CI 0.57–1.14) and 0.63 (95% CI 0.36–1.12).

 

Conclusion

These meta-analyses do not show clear survival advantage for TMT over dCRT. Only a non-significant trend towards better survival was seen, assuming comparable patient groups at baseline. Non-operative management of oesophageal carcinoma patients might be part of a personalised and tailored treatment approach in future. However, to date hard evidence proving its non-inferiority compared to operative management is lacking.

 

URL https://rdcu.be/buJic


Delayed Colo-anal Anastomosis for Rectal Cancer: Pelvic Morbidity, Functional Results and Oncological Outcomes: A Systematic Review

 

Author list

Giuseppe Portale, George Octavian Popesc, Matteo Parotto, Francesco Cavallin

 

Abstract

 

Introduction

Delayed colo-anal anastomosis (DCAA) has received renewed interest thanks to its reduction in anastomotic leakage rate without the use of stoma to protect a low rectal anastomosis. The aim of this review was to summarize the available literature on DCAA following rectal cancer resection and to report clinical, oncological and functional results.

 

Methods

A comprehensive literature review was conducted including MEDLINE/Pubmed, EMBASE, SCOPUS, clinicaltrials.gov and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews through July 2018. The review was conducted according to MOOSE guidelines. Quality was appraised with the methodological index for non-randomized studies (MINORS) tool.

Results

Eight observational studies (409 patients) were included. Average MINORS score was 9.6/14 in seven non-comparative studies and 17/22 in one comparative study. Six studies reported no anastomotic leak. Pelvic sepsis/abscess ranged from 0 to 25%. Mortality rate was <3% in seven studies and 12.5% in one. Poor fecal continence was reported in <30% of patients. Need for permanent stoma was ≤2% in six studies. A five-year survival rate ranged from 63.8 to 81% (four studies). Loco-regional recurrence rate ranged from 4.8 to 14.3% at 3 years (four studies) and from 6 to 38.8% at 5 years (three studies).

 

Conclusion

DCAA offers an alternative to primary straight colo-anal anastomosis for low rectal cancer. The benefits include reduced risk of anastomotic leakage and pelvic sepsis, and no need for protective ileostomy, with good functional and oncological outcomes. Results of ongoing randomized controlled trials comparing DCAA with straight colo-anal anastomosis and protective stoma are awaited to draw definitive conclusions.

 

URL https://rdcu.be/buJi6


 

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