Featured Articles in Mar 2018

Risk Factors for Central Neck Lymph Node Metastases in Micro- Versus Macro- Clinically Node Negative Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

 

Author list: Luca Sessa, Celestino Pio Lombardi, Carmela De Crea, Serena Elisa Tempera, Rocco Bellantone, Marco Raffaelli 

 

Abstract:

Background

Tumor size has been advocated as possible risk factors for occult central lymph node metastases (CNM) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients. This prospective study evaluated factors that could identify patients at higher risk of occult CNM, especially comparing micro-PTC and macro-PTC.

 

Methods

One hundred and eighty-six patients were recruited. All the patients had cN0 clinically unifocal PTC and underwent total thyroidectomy and bilateral prophylactic central neck dissection. Risk factors for occult CNM in micro- and macro-PTC patients were evaluated.

 

Results

Eighty-two patients showed CNM. The rate of CNM did not differ among different sizes cut off (≤20 mm, ≤10 mm, ≤5 mm P = NS). Significantly more pN1a than pN0 patients had pT3 tumors (35/82 vs. 26/104) (P < 0.05), extracapsular invasion (35/82 vs. 22/104) (P < 0.01) and microscopic multifocal disease (50/82 vs. 47/104) (P < 0.05). Independent risk factors for CNM were extracapsular invasion and multifocality at multivariate analysis. Risk factors for CNM in 77 micro-PTC were extracapsular invasion (16/31 pN1 vs. 10/46 pN0, P < 0.05) and multifocality (21/31 pN1 vs. 16/46 pN0, P < 0.01). Among 109 macro-PTC, risk factors for CNM were angioinvasion (15/51 pN1 vs. 7/58 pN0, P < 0.05) and classic PTC at the final histology (PTC vs. tall cell variant vs. follicular variant PTC) (P < 0.05).

 

Conclusion

Risk factors for CNM can differ between micro- and macro-PTC, but no preoperatively known clinical parameter is predictor of CNM in cN0 clinically unifocal PTC.

 

URL: http://rdcu.be/GjRn

 


Competency-Based Education in Low Resource Settings: Development of a Novel Surgical Training Program

 

Author list: Meghan McCullough, Alex Campbell, Armando Siu, Libby Durnwald, Shubha Kumar, William P. Magee III

 

Abstract:

Background

The unmet burden of surgical disease represents a major global health concern, and a lack of trained providers is a critical component of the inadequacy of surgical care worldwide. Competency-based training has been advanced in high-income countries, improving technical skills and decreasing training time, but it is poorly understood how this model might be applied to low- and middle-income countries. We describe the development of a competency-based program to accelerate specialty training of in-country providers in cleft surgery techniques.

 

 

 

Methods

The program was designed and piloted among eight trainees at five international cleft lip and palate surgical mission sites in Latin America and Africa. A competency-based evaluation form, designed for the program, was utilized to grade general technical and procedure-specific competencies, and pre- and post-training scores were analyzed using a paired t test.

 

Results

Trainees demonstrated improvement in average procedure-specific competency scores for both lip repairs (60.4–71.0%, p < 0.01) and palate (50.6–66.0%, p < 0.01). General technical competency scores also improved (63.6–72.0%, p < 0.01). Among the procedural competencies assessed, surgical markings showed the greatest improvement (19.0 and 22.8% for lip and palate, respectively), followed by nasal floor/mucosal approximation (15.0%) and hard palate dissection (17.1%).

 

Conclusion

Surgical delivery models in LMICs are varied, and trade-offs often exist between goals of case throughput, quality and training. Pilot program results show that procedure-specific and general technical competencies can be improved over a relatively short time and demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating such a training program into surgical outreach missions.

 

URL: http://rdcu.be/GjSo

 


Preoperative Needs-Based Education to Reduce Anxiety, Increase Satisfaction, and Decrease Time Spent in Day Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

 

Author list: Apinut Wongkietkachorn, Nuttapone Wongkietachorn, Peera Rhunsiri

 

Abstract:

Background

Too much or too little information during patient education can increase patient anxiety. Needs-based patient education helps to determine the appropriate amount of information required to provide education based on patient needs. This study aimed to compare needs-based patient education with traditional patient education in reducing preoperative anxiety.

 

Methods

This was a prospective, multicenter, single-blind, randomized controlled trial with a 1:1 allocation ratio. Patients undergoing day surgery were randomized into a study group (needs-based education) or a control group (traditional education). The primary outcome was patient anxiety. Secondary outcomes were patient satisfaction and time spent in patient education. Patients completed questionnaires to evaluate their anxiety and satisfaction before patient education, after patient education, and after surgery.

 

Results

In total, 450 patients were randomized and analyzed (study group n = 225, control group n = 225). Comparisons before education, after education, and after surgery showed that there was a significant decrease in patient anxiety and an increase in satisfaction in both groups (p < 0.001). The comparison between needs-based education and traditional education showed a greater decrease in anxiety (7.09 ± 7.02 vs. 5.33 ± 7.70, p = 0.001) and greater increase in satisfaction (21.1 ± 16.0 vs. 16.0 ± 21.6, p < 0.001) in the needs-based group. The needs-based group also had significantly less education time than the traditional group (171.8 ± 87.59 vs. 236.32 ± 101.27 s, p < 0.001).

 

Conclusion

Needs-based patient education is more effective in decreasing anxiety, increasing patient satisfaction, and reducing time spent in education compared with traditional patient education.

 

URL: http://rdcu.be/GjTp


 


Thromboembolic Events Following Splenectomy: Risk Factors, Prevention, Management and Outcomes

 

Author list: Amihai Rottenstreich, Geffen Kleinstern, Galia Spectre, Nael Da’as, Esther Ziv, Yosef Kalish

 

Abstract:

Background

Thromboembolic events following splenectomy are not uncommon. However, the role of thromboprophylaxis and risk factors for thrombosis, as well as the clinical course and outcomes, are not well characterized.

 

Methods

A retrospective review of individuals who underwent splenectomy between January 2006 and December 2015 in two university hospitals.

 

Results

Overall, 297 patients underwent splenectomy [open splenectomy (n = 199), laparoscopic splenectomy (n = 98)]. Mechanical (thigh-length pneumatic compression stockings) and pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis (40 mg enoxaparin daily, starting 12 h after surgery until discharge) was provided for all patients. One hundred and sixteen patients (39%) also received an extended thromboprophylaxis course of enoxaparin for 2–4 weeks after discharge. Twenty-three patients (7.7%) experienced thrombotic complications following splenectomy, including 16 cases (5.4%) of portal-splenic mesenteric venous thrombosis (PSMVT), 5 (1.7%) pulmonary embolism and 2 (0.7%) deep vein thrombosis. Longer operative time (mean operative time of 405 vs. 273 min, P = 0.03) was independently associated with PSMVT. Post-splenectomy thrombocytosis was not associated with thrombosis (P = 0.41). The overall thrombosis rate was significantly lower in patients who received an extended thromboprophylaxis course following splenectomy (3.4 vs. 10.5%, P = 0.02). Complete resolution of thrombosis was observed in most cases (n = 20, 87.0%), with no recurrent thrombosis during a mean follow-up of 38 ± 25 months.

 

Conclusions

Thromboembolic complications, mainly PSMVT, are common following splenectomy. Longer operative time was associated with thrombosis. Significantly lower rates of thrombosis were found in patients who received an extended thromboprophylaxis course.

 

URL: http://rdcu.be/GjUd


Disparities in Breast Cancer: Private Patients Have Better Outcomes Than Public Patients

 

Author list: W. C. Coetzee, J. P. Apffelstaedt, T. Zeeman, M. Du Plessis

 

Abstract:

Background

Different outcomes in breast cancer have been reported for low and high socio-economic groups. We present data quantifying disparities between South African public and private patients.

 

Methods

Records of 240 consecutive patients treated in 2008 in a public versus 97 patients in a private health facility were reviewed for demographic and oncologic data.

 

Results

The average of patients was 56.2 versus 51.9 years (p = 0.032). Stage at presentation was 0 in 0.83 versus 25.8%, I in 4.5 versus 15.5%, II in 41.3 versus 37.1%, III in 37.1 versus 18.6% and IV in 16.3 versus 3.1% public versus private patients. Seventy-three percent of patients were symptomatic versus 57.7%. Of patients with stage 0–III disease, 17.9 versus 20% had simple tumour excision and 7.5 versus 14%, oncoplastic tumour excision. The mastectomy rate was similar (52 vs. 60%), but immediate reconstruction was performed in 10 versus 63%. Public patients were less likely to have radiotherapy. The pathology was similar, 27.2 versus 20, 54 versus 52, 87 versus 61% of patients with stage I, II and III disease, respectively, had chemotherapy. Hormonal therapy for premenopausal patients in private was a LHRH agonist in 9.3%, ovarian ablation/BSO in 11.7% of public patients; biologicals were given in 7.2 versus 0% of patients. Overall survival for public versus private was 66 versus 80% (p < 0.001) months. Better per stage survival of private patients 100 versus 100, 72.7 versus 93.3, 84.8 versus 88.9, 57.3 versus 77.8 and 33 versus 33% for stages 0, I, II, III and IV, did not reach statistical significance.

 

Conclusion

The greatest impact on outcome was stage at presentation, but more aggressive therapy for each stage resulted in a trend to better outcome for private patients.

 

URL: http://rdcu.be/GjUP

 


In-Hospital Mortality for Hepatic Portal Venous Gas: Analysis of 1590 Patients Using a Japanese National Inpatient Database

 

Author list: Chie Koizumi, Nobuaki Michihata, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide Fushimi, Hideo Yasunaga

 

Abstract:

Background

Hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) is rare but potentially serious condition. Main cause of HPVG is bowel ischemia, while detection of HPVG without bowel ischemia may have been increasing possibly due to widespread use of computed tomography. However, little is known about variation in etiologies of HPVG and mortality of HPVG with each etiology. We examined patient backgrounds, underlying diseases, and in-hospital mortality of HPVG patients using a national inpatient database.

 

Methods

Using the Diagnosis Procedure Combination database in Japan, we identified inpatients diagnosed with HPVG from July 1, 2010 to March 31, 2015. Patients’ data included age, sex, comorbidities at admission, complications after admission, body mass index, surgical procedures, medications, and discharge status. In-hospital mortality was compared between the subgroups divided by the patient backgrounds and underlying diseases.

 

Results

A total of 1590 patients were identified during the study period. The mean age was 79.3 years old and the proportion of bowel ischemia was 53%. The overall in-hospital mortality was 27.3%. In-hospital mortality of HPVG with bowel ischemia, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) obstruction or dilation, GIT perforation, GIT infection, or sepsis was 26.8, 31.1, 33.3, 13.6, or 56.4%, respectively. Among patients with bowel ischemia, 32.2% patients received operation and their in-hospital mortality was 16.5%.

 

Conclusions

HPVG patients in the present study were relatively older but less likely to die than those in previous studies. Attention should be paid to the fact that mortality of HPVG without bowel ischemia was not always lower compared to that with bowel ischemia.

 

URL: http://rdcu.be/GjWa

 

 


A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Timing and Outcome of Intestinal Failure Surgery in Patients with Enteric Fistula

 

Author list: Fleur E. E. de Vries, Jasper J. Atema, Oddeke van Ruler, Carolynne J. Vaizey, Mireille J. Serlie, Marja A. Boermeester

 

Abstract:

Background

The timing of intestinal failure (IF) surgery has changed. Most specialized centers now recommend postponing reconstructive surgery for enteric fistula and emphasize that abdominal sepsis has to be resolved and the patient’s condition improved. Our aim was to study the outcome of postponed surgery, to identify risk factors for recurrence and mortality, and to define more precisely the optimal timing of reconstructive surgery.

 

Methods

PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were systematically reviewed on the outcomes of reconstructive IF surgery (fistula recurrence, mortality, morbidity, hernia recurrence, total closure, enteral autonomy). If appropriate, meta-analyses were performed. Optimal timing was explored, and risk factors for recurrence and mortality were identified.

 

Results

Fifteen studies were included. The weighted pooled fistula recurrence rate was 19% (95% CI 15–24). Lower recurrence rates were found in studies with a longer median time and/or, at the minimum of the range, a longer time interval to surgery. Overall mortality was 3% (95% CI 2–5). Total fistula closure rates ranged from 80 to 97%. Enteral autonomy after reconstructive surgery, mentioned in four studies, varied between 79 and 100%.

 

Conclusions

Postponed IF surgery for enteric fistula is associated with lower recurrence. Due to the wide range of time to definitive surgery within each study, optimal timing of surgery could not be defined from published data.

 

URL: http://rdcu.be/GjY5

 


Systemic Review of the Feasibility and Advantage of Minimally Invasive Pancreaticoduodenectomy

Author list: Chien-Hung Liao, Yu-Tung Wu, Yu-Yin Liu, Shang-Yu Wang, Shih-Ching Kang, Chun-Nan Yeh, Ta-Sen Yeh

 

Abstract:

Background

Minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy (MIPD), which includes laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD) and robotic pancreaticoduodenectomy (RPD), is a complex procedure that needs to be performed by experienced surgeons. However, the safety and oncologic performance have not yet been conclusively determined.

 

Methods

A systematic literature search was performed using the Embase, Medline, and PubMed databases to identify all studies published up to March 2015. Articles written in English containing the keywords: “pancreaticoduodenectomy” or “Whipple operation” combined with “laparoscopy,” “laparoscopic,” “robotic,” “da vinci,” or “minimally invasive surgery” were selected. Furthermore, to increase the power of evidence, articles describing more than ten MIPDs were selected for this review.

 

Results

Twenty-six articles matched the review criteria. A total of 780 LPDs and 248 RPDs were included in the current review. The overall conversion rate to open surgery was 9.1 %. The weighted average operative time was 422.6 min, and the weighted average blood loss was 321.1 mL. The weighted average number of harvested lymph nodes was 17.1, and the rate of microscopically positive tumor margins was 8.4 %. The cumulative morbidity was 35.9 %, and a pancreatic fistula was reported in 17.0 % of cases. The average length of hospital stay was 12.4 days, and the mortality rate was 2.2 %.

 

Conclusions

In conclusion, after reviewing one-thousand cases in the current literature, we conclude that MIPD offers a good perioperative, postoperative, and oncologic outcome. MIPD is feasible and safe in well-selected patients.

 

URL: http://rdcu.be/GjZV

 


 

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