Guidelines for Perioperative Care in Esophagectomy: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS®) Society Recommendations
Author list: Donald E. Low, William Allum, Giovanni De Manzoni, Lorenzo Ferri, Arul Immanuel, MadhanKumar Kuppusamy, Simon Law, Mats Lindblad, Nick Maynard, Joseph Neal, C. S. Pramesh, Mike Scott, B. Mark Smithers, Valérie Addor, Olle Ljungqvist
Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs provide a format for multidisciplinary care and has been shown to predictably improve short term outcomes associated with surgical procedures. Esophagectomy has historically been associated with significant levels of morbidity and mortality and as a result routine application and audit of ERAS guidelines specifically designed for esophageal resection has significant potential to improve outcomes associated with this complex procedure.
A team of international experts in the surgical management of esophageal cancer was assembled and the existing literature was identified and reviewed prior to the production of the guidelines. Well established procedure specific components of ERAS were reviewed and updated with changes relevant to esophagectomy. Procedure specific, operative and technical sections were produced utilizing the best current level of evidence. All sections were rated regarding the level of evidence and overall recommendation according to the evaluation (GRADE) system.
Thirty-nine sections were ultimately produced and assessed for quality of evidence and recommendations. Some sections were completely new to ERAS programs due to the fact that esophagectomy is the first guideline with a thoracic component to the procedure.
The current ERAS society guidelines should be reviewed and applied in all centers looking to improve outcomes and quality associated with esophageal resection.
Hypophosphatemia as a Predictor of Organ-Specific Complications Following Gastrointestinal Surgery: Analysis of 8034 Patients
Author list: Eran Sadot, Jian Zheng, Rami Srouji, Vivian E. Strong, Mithat Gönen, Vinod P. Balachandran, Michael I. D’Angelica, Peter J. Allen, Ronald P. DeMatteo, T. Peter Kingham, Yuman Fong, Martin R. Weiser, William R. Jarnagin
Organ-specific complications (OSC) remain serious potential sequela of gastrointestinal surgery. Hypophosphatemia correlates with poor outcomes and may be a harbinger of OSC after gastrointestinal surgery. Our goal was to describe and evaluate the relationship between postoperative phosphate levels and OSC.
Consecutive patients who underwent pancreatic, colorectal, or gastric resections were analyzed. OSC were defined as those resulting from the failure of at least one anastomosis performed during the primary resection, manifesting as an anastomotic leak, fistula, and/or intra-abdominal abscess. Postoperative serum phosphate levels and other recognized OSC risk factors were compared among patients who did and did not develop OSC.
A total of 8034 patients who underwent pancreatic (n = 397), colorectal (n = 5808), or gastric (n = 1829) resections were included in the study. In each resection group, the majority of patients experienced hypophosphatemia postresection with the nadir on postoperative day (POD) 2, and the subgroups that developed OSC exhibited lower phosphate levels on POD3–7. On multivariate analysis, lower phosphate level on POD3 remained significantly associated with OSC following pancreatic resection [median (interquartile range) mmol/L, 0.65 (0.53–0.76) vs. 0.71 (0.61–0.84), p = 0.045] and colorectal resection [0.71 (0.61–0.87) vs. 0.77 (0.65–0.94), p = 0.006], and lower phosphate level on POD4 remained associated with OSC following gastric resection [0.87 (0.74–1.03) vs. 0.96 (0.81–1.13), p = 0.049].
This study identified a consistent trajectory of serum phosphate levels following 3 different gastrointestinal operations and association between early postoperative phosphate levels and OSC. Persistent lower phosphate levels should raise the level of concern for evolving postoperative leak and may lead to earlier radiographic evaluation and treatment.
Emergency Bleeding Control Interventions After Immediate Total-Body CT Scans in Trauma Patients
Author list: Kaij Treskes, Teun P. Saltzherr, Michael J. R. Edwards, Benn J. A. Beuker, D. Den Hartog, Joachim Hohmann, Jan S. Luitse, Ludo F. M. Beenen, Markus W. Hollmann, Marcel G. W. Dijkgraaf, J. Carel Goslings, the REACT-2 study group
Immediate total-body CT (iTBCT) is often used for screening of potential severely injured patients. Patients requiring emergency bleeding control interventions benefit from fast and optimal trauma screening. The aim of this study was to assess whether an initial trauma assessment with iTBCT is associated with lower mortality in patients requiring emergency bleeding control interventions.
In the REACT-2 trial, patients who sustained major trauma were randomized for iTBCT or for conventional imaging and selective CT scanning (standard workup; STWU) in five trauma centers. Patients who underwent emergency bleeding control interventions following their initial trauma assessment with iTBCT were compared for mortality and clinically relevant time intervals to patients that underwent the initial trauma assessment with the STWU.
In the REACT-2 trial, 1083 patients were enrolled of which 172 (15.9%) underwent emergency bleeding control interventions following their initial trauma assessment. Within these 172 patients, 85 (49.4%) underwent iTBCT as primary diagnostic modality during the initial trauma assessment. In trauma patients requiring emergency bleeding control interventions, in-hospital mortality was 12.9% (95% CI 7.2–21.9%) in the iTBCT group compared to 24.1% (95% CI 16.3–34.2%) in the STWU group (p = 0.059). Time to bleeding control intervention was not reduced; 82 min (IQR 5–121) versus 98 min (IQR 62–147), p = 0.108.
Reduction in mortality in trauma patients requiring emergency bleeding control interventions by iTBCT could not be demonstrated in this study. However, a potentially clinically relevant absolute risk reduction of 11.2% (95% CI − 0.3 to 22.7%) in comparison with STWU was observed.
Outcomes of Adrenal Venous Sampling in Patients with Bilateral Adrenal Masses and ACTH-Independent Cushing’s Syndrome
Author list: Runa Acharya, Mashaal Dhir, Rupal Bandi, Linwah Yip, Sue Challinor
Management of patients with bilateral adrenal masses and ACTH-independent Cushing’s syndrome (AICS) is challenging, as bilateral adrenalectomy can lead to steroid dependence and lifelong risk of adrenal crisis. Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) has been previously reported to facilitate lateralization for guiding adrenalectomy. The aim of the current study was to investigate the utility of AVS using protocol from study by Young et al. in the management of patients with bilateral adrenal masses and AICS.
Methods and design
A retrospective review of all patients with bilateral adrenal masses and AICS who underwent AVS from 2008 to 2016 was performed. AVS for cortisol and epinephrine was performed with dexamethasone suppression. The adrenal vein to peripheral vein cortisol ratios and side-to-side cortisol lateralization ratios were calculated.
AVS was successful in 8 of 9 patients. All 8 patients had AVS results indicating bilateral cortisol hypersecretion. Six patients underwent adrenalectomy: 3 had unilateral adrenalectomy of the larger size mass, 2 had bilateral adrenalectomy (both sides >4 cm.) and 1 had stepwise bilateral adrenalectomy. Final pathology revealed macronodular adrenal hyperplasia in all 6 patients that underwent surgery.
AVS was useful in excluding a unilateral adenoma as the source of AICS in this study of patients with bilateral adrenal masses and AICS. However, adrenal mass size influenced surgical decision making more than AVS results. More data are needed before AVS can be advocated as essential for management of patients with bilateral adrenal masses and AICS.
Laparoscopic Hepatectomy Versus Open Hepatectomy for the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma -
Author list: Xavier Untereiner, Audrey Cagniet, Riccardo Memeo, Zineb Cherkaoui, Tullio Piardi, François Severac, Didier Mutter, Reza Kianmanesh, Taiga Wakabayashi, Daniele Sommacale, Patrick Pessaux
The aim of this study was to compare the results between laparoscopic hepatectomy and open hepatectomy in two French university hospitals, for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using a propensity score matching.
Materials and methods
A patient in the laparoscopic surgery group (LA) was randomly matched with another patient in the open approach group (OA) using a 1:1 allocated ratio with the nearest estimated propensity score. Matching criteria included age, presence of comorbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, and resection type (major or minor). Patients of the LA group without matches were excluded. Intraoperative and postoperative data were compared in both groups. Survival was compared in both groups using the following matching criteria: number and size of lesions, alpha-fetoprotein rate, and cell differentiation.
From January 2012 to January 2017, a total of 447 hepatectomies were consecutively performed, 99 hepatectomies of which were performed for the management of hepatocellular carcinomas. Forty-nine resections were performed among the open approach (OA) group (49%), and 50 resections were performed among the laparoscopic surgery (LA) group (51%). Mortality rate was 2% in the LA group and 4.1% in the OA group. After propensity score matching, there was a statistical difference favorable to the LA group regarding medical complications (54.55% versus 27.27%, p = 0.04), and operating times were shorter (p = 0.03). Resection rate R0 was similar between both groups: 90.91% (n = 30) in the LA group and 84.85% (n =) in the OA group. There was no difference regarding overall survival (p = 0.98) and recurrence-free survival (p = 0.42).
Laparoscopic liver resection for the management of HCC seems to provide the same short-term and long-term results as compared to the open approach. Laparoscopic liver resections could be considered as an alternative and become the gold standard in well-selected patients.
A Meta-analysis of Prophylaxis of Surgical Site Infections with Topical Application of Povidone Iodine Before Primary Closure
Author list: Manuel López-Cano, Miquel Kraft, Anna Curell, Mireia Puig-Asensio, José Balibrea, Manuel Armengol-Carrasco, Josep M. García-Alamino
Povidone iodine (PVI) is a widely used antiseptic solution among surgeons. A meta-analysis based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to establish whether application of PVI before wound closure could reduce surgical site infection (SSI) rates.
Systematic review of MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases from inception to September 2017, with no language restrictions. Only RCTs were retrieved. The primary outcome was the SSI rate. Meta-analysis was complemented with trial sequential analysis (TSA).
A total of 7601 patients collected from 16 RCTs were analyzed. A reduction in overall SSI rate was found (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.48–0.85, P = 0.002, I2 = 65%), which was attributed to patients undergoing elective operations (n = 2358) and mixed elective/urgent operations (n = 2019). When RCTs of uncertain quality (n = 9) were excluded, the use of PVI before wound closure (n = 4322 patients) was not associated with a significant reduction of SSI (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.55–1.20, P = 0.29, I2 = 51%) and was only significant in clean wounds (RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.09–0.70, P = 0.008, I2 = 0%). For the primary outcome, the TSA calculation using a relative risk reduction of 19% and an 11% proportion of control event rate (CER) with 51% of I2, the accrued information size (n = 4322) was 32.8% of the estimated optimal information size (n = 13,148).
There is no conclusive evidence for a strong recommendation of topical PVI before wound closure to prevent SSI.
What Exactly is Meant by “Loss of Domain” for Ventral Hernia? Systematic Review of Definitions -
Author list S. G. Parker, S. Halligan, S. Blackburn, A. A. O. Plumb, L. Archer, S. Mallett, A. C. J. Windsor
Large ventral hernias are a significant surgical challenge. “Loss of domain” (LOD) expresses the relationship between hernia and abdominal volume, and is used to predict operative difficulty and success. This systematic review assessed whether different definitions of LOD are used in the literature. The PubMed database was searched for articles reporting large hernia repairs that explicitly described LOD. Two reviewers screened citations and extracted data from selected articles, focusing on the definitions used for LOD, study demographics, study design, and reporting surgical specialty. One hundred and seven articles were identified, 93 full-texts examined, and 77 were included in the systematic review. Sixty-seven articles were from the primary literature, and 10 articles were from the secondary literature. Twenty-eight articles (36%) gave a written definition for loss of domain. These varied and divided into six broad groupings; four described the loss of the right of domain, six described abdominal strap muscle contraction, five described the “second abdomen”, five describing large irreducible hernias. Six gave miscellaneous definitions. Two articles gave multiple definitions. Twenty articles (26%) gave volumetric definitions; eight used the Tanaka method [hernia sac volume (HSV)/abdominal cavity volume] and five used the Sabbagh method [(HSV)/total peritoneal volume]. The definitions used for loss of domain were not dependent on the reporting specialty. Our systematic review revealed that multiple definitions of loss of domain are being used. These vary and are not interchangeable. Expert consensus on this matter is necessary to standardise this important concept for hernia surgeons.
Open Inguinal Hernia Repair: A Network Meta-analysis Comparing Self-Gripping Mesh, Suture Fixation, and Glue Fixation
Author list Emanuele Rausa, Emanuele Asti, Michael Eamon Kelly, Alberto Aiolfi, Andrea Lovece, Gianluca Bonitta, Luigi Bonavina
The most troublesome complications of inguinal hernia repair are recurrent herniation and chronic pain. A multitude of technological products dedicated to abdominal wall surgery, such as self-gripping mesh (SGM) and glue fixation (GF), were introduced in alternative to suture fixation (SF) in the attempt to lower the postoperative complication rates. We conducted an electronic systematic search using MEDLINE databases that compared postoperative pain and short- and long-term surgical complications after SGM or GF and SF in open inguinal hernia repair. Twenty-eight randomized controlled trials totaling 5495 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this network meta-analysis. SGM and GF did not show better outcomes in either short- or long-term complications compared to SF. Patients in the SGM group showed significantly more pain at day 1 compared to those in the GF group (VAS score pain mean difference: − 5.2 Crl − 11.0; − 1.2). The relative risk (RR) of developing a surgical site infection (RR 0.83; Crl 0.50–1.32), hematoma (RR 1.9; Crl 0.35–11.2), and seroma (RR 1.81; Crl 0.54–6.53) was similar in SGM and GF groups. Both the SGM and GF had a significantly shorter operative time mean difference (1.70; Crl − 1.80; 5.3) compared to SF. Chronic pain and hernia recurrence did not statistically differ at 1 year (RR 0.63; Crl 0.36–1.12; RR 1.5; Crl 0.52–4.71, respectively) between SGM and GF. Methods of inguinal hernia repair are evolving, but there remains no superiority in terms of mesh fixation. Ultimately, patient’s preference and surgeon’s expertise should still lead the choice about the fixation method.